When two processes run on the same machine, they are somewhat isolated. For example, they cannot read each other’s memory. However, they still share the same file system, libraries, network ports. And hardware: CPU and memory. Docker allows running processes with greater isolation on a Linux machine. Processes like: web servers, databases or web applications. Traditionally, to achieve better isolation, virtual machines were used. Virtual machine is essentially an operating system started inside of another operating system. For example, Windows running inside Linux. Typically you run a few VMs on a single host. Unfortunately, a virtual machine has an overhead. It takes several seconds to start and uses a significant amount of memory. Docker is somewhere in between. Better isolation than plain processes, but it’s not quite yet a VM.
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